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Medizinische Publikationen zu EM-X (Manju) in der grössten und wichtigsten medizinischen Datenbank PubMed

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  • Medizinische Publikationen zu EM-X (Manju) in der grössten und wichtigsten medizinischen Datenbank PubMed


    Quelle: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?...oorganism+em-x


    Biomed Pharmacother. 2009 Feb;63(2):114-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.03.008. Epub 2008 Apr 16.

    Modulation of experimental osteoporosis in rats by the antioxidant beverage effective microorganism-X (EM-X).
    Ke B1, Xu Z, Ling Y, Qiu W, Xu Y, Higa T, Aruoma OI.
    Author information
    Abstract

    Osteoporosis is a disease of aging associated with bone loss that often occurs without symptoms until microarchitectural deterioration becomes so significant that bone fracture occurs. The effective microorganism-X (EM-X) is an antioxidant beverage derived from ferment of unpolished rice, sea weeds and papaya with effective microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeast and photosynthetic bacteria (containing minerals, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, ubiquinone, saponin and flavonoids). The levels of serum estradiol (E(2)) and the bone density of the middle and epiphysis of femurs were assessed in order to determine the effect of EM-X on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat (an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis). EM-X (1 ml/rat/day) was initially administrated by gavage to rats which were then allowed to consume 10% (v/v) EM-X in water freely for 3 months. There was no statistical significance of E(2) level between sham operation group and control group, indicating that sham operation did not affect E(2) level. However, the E(2) levels in the ovariectomized rats tended to increase after treatment of EM-X for 3 months. The bone density of the middle and epiphysis of femur in both sham operation and ovariectomy group decreased with time. Rats receiving EM-X for 3 months after sham operation or ovariectomy had increased bone density of the middle of femur that was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). The bone density of the epiphysis of femur in both sham operation and ovariectomy group were significantly increased, an outcome highly suggestive of the beneficial effects of EM-X on bone density of the middle and the epiphysis of femur in the rats with or without ovariectomy.

    PMID: 18930627
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Int J Mol Med. 2007 Oct;20(4):631-5.
    Effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) attenuates airway hyperreactivity and inflammation through selective inhibition of the TH2 response independently of antioxidant activity.
    Do JS1, Seo HJ, Hwang JK, Kim JH, Nam SY.
    Author information
    Abstract

    The effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) is an antioxidant cocktail derived from the fermentation of plant material with effective microorganisms, and its clinical application is being increasingly scrutinized. In the current study, the antiasthmatic effect of EM-X was investigated using a mouse model. Inhalation of EM-X during OVA challenge resulted in a significant reduction in airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and airway recruitment of leukocytes including eosinophils. However, the level of 8-isoprostane in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), a marker of oxidative stress in asthmatic patients, was unaltered by EM-X inhalation. Instead, ELISA data showed that levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in BALF or lung tissues were significantly lower in EM-X-inhaling mice than in the control mice, but not the IFN-gamma level. A considerably lower amount of Ag-specific IgE and IgG1 was detected in the serum of EM-X-inhaling mice than in the serum of the controls, whereas their IgG2a secretion was similar. In addition, Ag-specific ex vivo IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production of draining lymph node cells was markedly diminished by EM-X inhalation, but not IFN-gamma. These data clearly show that inhaled EM-X suppresses type 2 helper T (TH2), but not type 1 helper T (TH1), response. In conclusion, inhalation of EM-X attenuates AHR and airway inflammation which results from selective inhibition of the TH2 response to allergen, but independently of antioxidant activity. Our data also suggest that EM-X may be effectively applied for control of allergic asthma.

    PMID:17786297
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):975-9.
    Antiangiogenic activity of a concentrated effective microorganism fermentation extract.
    Chui CH1, Gambari R, Lau FY, Hau DK, Wong RS, Cheng GY, Kok SH, Higa T, Ke B, Chan AS, Fong DW, Tang JC.
    Author information
    Abstract

    We have previously demonstrated the possible growth inhibitory activity of both first generation of the effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) as well as the second generation (EM-X2) on cancer cell lines in vitro. The possible anti-angiogenic potential of EM-X has not been reported. Herein we show that using the concentrated EM-X, the growth of human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUCE) was significantly inhibited in vitro. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay suggested that the concentrated EM-X is able to reduce the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The conditioned culture medium obtained from the concentrated EM-X incubated Hep3B HCC cells possessed significant antiproliferative effect on the HUCE cells. Moreover, in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay further demonstrated that the concentrated EM-X is able to greatly inhibit the basic fibroblast growth factor induced angiogenesis from chick embryo experiment. We speculate that the anti-cancer potential of this concentrated EM-X involved growth inhibition on cancer cell and antiangiogenic effect on HUCE cells.

    PMID:17016630
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Int J Mol Med. 2006 Feb;17(2):279-84.
    Apoptotic potential of the concentrated effective microorganism fermentation extract on human cancer cells.
    Chui CH1, Hau DK, Lau FY, Cheng GY, Wong RS, Gambari R, Kok SH, Lai KB, Teo IT, Leung TW, Higa T, Ke B, Tang JC, Fong DW, Chan AS.
    Author information
    Abstract

    The effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X, the first generation) was claimed to possess strong anti-oxidation property. On the other hand, we have shown that the second generation of the effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X2) possessed growth inhibition on human cancer cells involving MDA-MB231 breast cancer and K-562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia cells. Elevation of super oxide dismutase activity from EM-X2 treated cancer cell extract was observed. However, the possible anti-cancer activity of the first generation of the EM-X was not reported. Here we demonstrate that the concentrated form of the EM-X from its original fluid also possess antiproliferation ability together with induction of apoptosis on the human cancer cell lines including Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and KG1a acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). Similar effect could also be demonstrated on primary cultured bone marrow samples isolated from patients with AML. Morphological inspection revealed that common apoptotic feature was found on these concentrated EM-X treated cancer cells. Both the anchorage-dependent clonogenicity assay on Hep3B HCC and methyl-cellulose colony formation assay on KG1a cells and bone marrow cells from AML patients further revealed the ability of the concentrated EM-X on reducing their colony formation ability. Incubating KG1a with concentrated EM-X readily induced apoptosis as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis. Interestingly, few growth inhibition effect of the concentrated EM-X was observed on both the SV40 transformed THLE-2 liver epithelial cells and primary cultured non-malignant haematological disordered bone marrow. Collectively, this concentrated EM-X is effective in inducing cell death and reducing the regeneration potential of both Hep3B HCC and KG1a AML cells in vitro.

    PMID: 16391827
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Int J Mol Med. 2004 Nov;14(5):925-9.
    Growth inhibitory potential of effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) on cancer cells.
    Chui CH1, Cheng GY, Ke B, Lau FY, Wong RS, Kok SH, Fatima S, Cheung F, Cheng CH, Chan AS, Tang JC.
    Author information
    Abstract

    The effective microorganism (EM-X) fermentation extract is derived from rice bran and seaweed extract. It has been shown to possess anti-oxidation activity both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, the possible in vitro anti-cancer potential of EM-X has not been demonstrated. Here we showed that the double concentrate of EM-X (EM-X2) at concentrations of 20-30% by volume, had growth inhibitory activity on MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line and K-562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia cell lines by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2-H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. No characteristic features of apoptosis could be observed morphologically. Colony formation assay illustrated that both MDA-MB231 breast cancer and K-562 CML cells lost part of their regeneration potential after treatment with EM-X2 at 30% concentration by volume for 24 h. At these concentrations, only slight growth inhibitory effect was observed in 293 human kidney fibroblast cells and in three non-malignant bone marrows. Intracellular nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay showed that both MDA-MB231 breast cancer and K-562 CML cells had about 30% reduction of intracellular NBT after incubation with 30% of EM-X2. Increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) could be detected from both MDA-MB231 and K-562 cell lines after incubating with 30% of EM-X2. Taken together, our data suggested that EM-X could inhibit growth and reduce the regeneration potential of cancer cells, possibly through its antioxidation activity.

    PMID: 15492867
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 May;56(5):649-54.
    The antioxidant drink effective microorganism-X (EM-X) pre-treatment attenuates the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease.
    Datla KP1, Bennett RD, Zbarsky V, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Bahorun T, Aruoma OI, Dexter DT.
    Author information
    Abstract

    There is continued interest in the assessment and potential use of antioxidants as neuroprotective agents in diseases associated with increased oxidative stress, such as Parkinson's disease. The neuroprotective effect of a natural antioxidant drink, EM-X (a ferment derivative of unpolished rice, papaya and seaweeds with effective microorganisms), was investigated using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons were unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA (8 microg) in rats that were treated with a 10-times diluted EM-X drink (dilEM-X), standard EM-X drink (stdEM-X) or tap water for 4 days. Seven days post lesion, the integrity (no. of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells (TH+ cells) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)) and functionality (dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA content in the striata) of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons were assessed. In the vehicle-treated rats, infusion of 8 microg of 6-OHDA significantly reduced the number of TH+ cells in the SNpc as well as the levels of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA in the striata on the lesion side. The loss of TH+ cells, dopamine and HVA, but not the DOPAC levels, was significantly attenuated by stdEM-X pretreatment, but not by the dilEM-X pretreatment. There were no significant changes in the TH+ cells, or in the monoamine levels with the EM-X pretreatment per se, except for a small but significant fall in the levels of dopamine with the stdEM-X. The evidence presented supports the potential neuroprotective effects of stdEM-X drink, although its effect on dopamine levels needs further investigation.

    PMID:15142343
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Free Radic Res. 2003 Jan;37(1):91-7.
    The antioxidant cocktail, effective microorganism X (EM-X), protects retinal neurons in rats against N-methyl-D-aspartate excitotoxicity in vivo.
    Aruoma OI1, Moncaster JA, Walsh DT, Gentleman SM, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Jen LS.
    Author information
    Abstract

    Injection of the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) into the vitreous body of rats resulted in severe degeneration of neurons in the retina, with a loss of 81% of ganglion cells and 43% of non-ganglion cells. The cocktail EM-X is a novel antioxidant drink derived from ferment of unpolished rice, papaya and sea-weeds with effective microorganisms (EM-X). In animals treated with an intraperitoneal injection of EM-X, the loss of ganglion cells was reduced to 55% and that of non-ganglion cells to 34% when compared to untreated NMDA-injected retinas. Cell degeneration resulting from NMDA excitotoxicity, is thought to be mediated via oxidative stress mechanisms. The neuroprotective effect of the EM-X in this system is therefore likely to be due, at least in part, to its flavonoids, saponins, vitamin E and ascorbic content.

    PMID:12653222
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Sep 6;296(5):1148-51.
    The antioxidant cocktail effective microorganism X (EM-X) inhibits oxidant-induced interleukin-8 release and the peroxidation of phospholipids in vitro.
    Deiana M1, Dessi MA, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Gilmour PS, Jen LS, Rahman I, Aruoma OI.
    Author information
    Abstract

    The antioxidant beverage EM-X is derived from the ferment of unpolished rice, papaya, and sea-weeds with effective microorganisms. Oxidative stress enhances the expression of proinflammatory genes, causing the release of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), which mediates a multitude of inflammatory events. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with H(2)O(2) (100 microM) or TNF-alpha (10ng/ml) alone or with the addition of EM-X (100 microl/ml), incubated for 20h, and the release of IL-8, measured using ELISA. EM-X inhibited the release of IL-8 at the transcriptional level in A549 cells. EM-X also decreased the iron/ascorbate dependent peroxidation of ox-brain phospholipids in a concentration dependent manner. A TEAC value of 0.10+/-0.05mM was obtained for EM-X, indicating antioxidant potential. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of EM-X are dependent on the flavonoid contents of the beverage.

    PMID:12207893
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Gruss Patrik
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